Through pegging to other Assets the local currency itself can be stabilised and make less volatile in comparison with other currencies. 

Currency is a medium of exchange a for goods and services. In short, it's money, in the form of paper or coins, usually issued by a government and generally accepted at its face value as a method of payment.

Currency is the primary medium of exchange in the modern world, having long ago replaced bartering as a means of trading goods and services.

In the 21st century, a new form of currency has entered the vocabulary, the virtual currency. Virtual currencies such as bitcoins have no physical existence or government backing and are traded and stored in electronic form.


  • Currency is a generally accepted form of payment, usually issued by a government and circulated within its jurisdiction.
  • The value of any currency fluctuates constantly in relation to other currencies. The currency exchange market exists as a means of profiting from those fluctuations.
  • Many countries accept the U.S. dollar for payment, while others peg their currency value directly to the U.S. dollar.

A key characteristic of modern money is that it is uniformly worthless in itself. That is, bills are pieces of paper rather than coins made of gold, silver, or bronze. The concept of using paper as a currency may have been developed in China as early as 1000 BC, but the acceptance of a piece of paper in return for something of real value took a long time to catch on. Modern currencies are issued on paper in various denominations, with fractional issues in the form of coins.

About National Currencies 

According to, 180 national currencies recognized by the United Nations are currently in circulation. Another 66 countries either use the U.S. dollar or peg their currencies directly to the dollar.

Most countries issue their own currencies. For example, Switzerland's official currency is the Swiss franc, and Japan's is the yen. An exception is the euro, which has been adopted by most countries that are members of the European Union.

Some countries accept the U.S. dollar as legal tender in addition to their own currencies. Costa Rica, El Salvador, and Ecuador all accept U.S. dollars. For some time after the founding of the U.S. Mint in 1792, Americans continued to use Spanish coins because they were heavier and presumably felt more valuable.

There are also branded currencies, like airline and credit card points and Disney Dollars. These are issued by companies and are used only to pay for the products and services to which they are tied.

Currency Trading 

The exchange rate is the current value of any currency in exchange for another currency. This rate fluctuates constantly in response to economic and political events.

Those fluctuations create the market for currency trading. The foreign exchange market where these trades are conducted is one of the world's largest markets in sheer volume. All trades are in large volumes, with a standard minimum lot of $100,00. Most currency traders are professionals investing for themselves or for institutional clients including banks and large corporations.

Currency in some form has been in use for at least 3,000 years. 

In the picture you see Shells that had been utilised as currency

The Lydian Stater was the official coin of the Lydian Empire, introduced before the kingdom fell to the Persian Empire. The earliest staters are believed to date to around the second half of the 7th century BCE, during the reign of King Alyattes (r. 619-560 BCE). According to a consensus of numismatic historians, the Lydian stater was the first coin officially issued by a government in world history and was the model for virtually all subsequent coinage.

Paper currency first developed in Tang Dynasty China during the 7th century, although true paper money did not appear until the 11th century, during the Song Dynasty. The usage of paper currency later spread throughout the Mongol Empire or Yuan Dynasty China to Europe.

European explorers like Marco Polo introduced the concept in Europe during the 13th century.

King Henry VIII, King of England, in 1100 A.D. produced sticks of polished wood, with notches cut along one edge to signify the denominations. The stick was then split full length so each piece still had a record of the notches.The King kept one half for proof against counterfeiting, and then spent the other half into the market place where it would continue to circulate as money.

Because only Tally Sticks were
accepted by Henry for payment of taxes, there was a built in demand for them, which gave people confidence to accept these as money. So good was the system he created, it lasted until 1854! 

Central bank digital currency (CBDC)

Interest in CBDCs has grown in response to changes in payments, finance and technology, as well as the disruption caused by Covid-19. A 2021 BIS survey of central banks found that 86% are actively researching the potential for CBDCs, 60% were experimenting with the technology and 14% were deploying pilot projects.

In simple terms, a central bank digital currency (CBDC) would be a digital banknote. It could be used by individuals to pay businesses, shops or each other (a "retail CBDC"), or between financial institutions to settle trades in financial markets (a "wholesale CBDC").

Central banks are exploring whether CBDC could help them to achieve their public good objectives, such as safeguarding public trust in money, maintaining price stability and ensuring safe and resilient payment systems and infrastructure.

If successful, CBDCs could ensure that, as economies go digital, the general public would retain access to the safest form of money - a claim on a central bank. This could promote diversity in payment options, make cross-border payments faster and cheaper, increase financial inclusion and possibly facilitate fiscal transfers in times of economic crisis (such as a pandemic).

A central bank digital currency (CBDC) is a digital version of a country's fiat currency that is issued and backed by the central bank. It can be used in the same way as physical cash and is accessible to both financial institutions and the general public.

CBDCs have garnered a lot of attention in recent years as a potential solution to the increasing demand for digital payments and the declining use of physical cash. They have the potential to improve financial inclusion, increase efficiency in payment systems, and provide additional tools for monetary policy.

One key difference between CBDCs and traditional digital payment systems is that CBDCs are issued and backed by central banks, while traditional digital payment systems are issued and backed by private companies. This means that CBDCs have the same legal tender status as physical cash and are subject to the same regulatory oversight.

CBDCs can be issued in two different forms: a retail CBDC, which is accessible to the general public, and a wholesale CBDC, which is only accessible to financial institutions. Retail CBDCs have the potential to increase financial inclusion by providing a secure and convenient way for individuals and small businesses to access digital payments, while wholesale CBDCs can improve the efficiency of interbank settlements and reduce reliance on correspondent banking.

There are several potential benefits to the adoption of CBDCs. One benefit is that they can improve financial inclusion by providing a way for individuals and small businesses to access digital payments, especially in areas where access to traditional financial services is limited. They can also improve the efficiency of payment systems by reducing the need for intermediaries and increasing the speed of settlements.

In addition, CBDCs can provide additional tools for monetary policy by allowing central banks to directly target the amount of CBDC in circulation and the interest rate on CBDC deposits. This can provide central banks with additional flexibility in implementing monetary policy, especially in times of economic crisis.

However, there are also potential risks and challenges associated with the adoption of CBDCs. One risk is the potential for CBDCs to disrupt the traditional banking system and financial intermediaries, such as commercial banks. There is also the potential for CBDCs to be used for illicit activities, such as money laundering and terrorist financing, if adequate safeguards are not put in place.

In conclusion, CBDCs have the potential to bring many benefits, including improved financial inclusion, increased efficiency in payment systems, and additional tools for monetary policy. However, it is important for central banks to carefully consider the potential risks and challenges and to implement appropriate safeguards to ensure the safe and effective adoption of CBDCs.


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