Central bank digital currency (CBDC)

Interest in CBDCs has grown in response to changes in payments, finance and technology, as well as the disruption caused by Covid-19. A 2021 BIS survey of central banks found that 86% are actively researching the potential for CBDCs, 60% were experimenting with the technology and 14% were deploying pilot projects.

In simple terms, a central bank digital currency (CBDC) would be a digital banknote. It could be used by individuals to pay businesses, shops or each other (a "retail CBDC"), or between financial institutions to settle trades in financial markets (a "wholesale CBDC").

Central banks are exploring whether CBDC could help them to achieve their public good objectives, such as safeguarding public trust in money, maintaining price stability and ensuring safe and resilient payment systems and infrastructure.

If successful, CBDCs could ensure that, as economies go digital, the general public would retain access to the safest form of money - a claim on a central bank. This could promote diversity in payment options, make cross-border payments faster and cheaper, increase financial inclusion and possibly facilitate fiscal transfers in times of economic crisis (such as a pandemic).

Digital Financial Instruments and Digital Fiat Currencies Creation

We create financial Instruments (Forwards, Swaps, Options, etc.) with own ISIN and issue respective Tokens with the financial instrument as underlying in such a way that the corresponding tokens can be traded in Euro or USD and of course in Bitcoin, Ethereum and Litecoin, etc.

This reliable blockchain white-label solution lodged with our service provider Tangany  is supervised by the German Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (BaFin) as a crypto custody provider pursuant to Section 64y German Banking Act (Kreditwesengesetz).

We create own Crypto-Currencies 

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Off-ledger to on-ledger conversion

Off-ledger to on-ledger conversion refers to the process of moving a financial asset or transaction from an off-chain platform to a blockchain. This process is often necessary in order to take advantage of the benefits of using a blockchain, such as increased transparency, security, and immutability.

One common reason for conducting an off-ledger to on-ledger conversion is to enable the use of smart contracts. Smart contracts are self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement between buyer and seller being directly written into lines of code. These contracts can be automatically enforced and are often used to facilitate, verify, and enforce the negotiation or performance of a contract. However, in order to use smart contracts, the underlying asset or transaction must be on the blockchain.

Another reason for conducting an off-ledger to on-ledger conversion is to increase the transparency and security of a financial asset or transaction. By moving the asset or transaction onto the blockchain, all parties involved can see the entire history of the asset or transaction, making it more difficult to alter or manipulate.

There are a few different ways to conduct an off-ledger to on-ledger conversion, depending on the specific needs of the asset or transaction. One common method is to use a trusted third party, such as a bank or other financial institution, to facilitate the conversion. This third party can act as a bridge between the off-chain platform and the blockchain, verifying and recording the asset or transaction on the blockchain.

Another method is to use atomic swaps, which allow for the exchange of one cryptocurrency for another without the need for a trusted third party. This can be done by creating a smart contract that holds both assets and releases them to the appropriate parties once the terms of the exchange have been met.

Overall, off-ledger to on-ledger conversion is an important process that enables the use of blockchain technology and the benefits it provides. By moving financial assets and transactions onto the blockchain, it is possible to increase transparency, security, and immutability, making them more secure and trustworthy for all parties involved.

Smart Contracts

A smart contract is a self-executing, programmable agreement that is created and stored on a decentralized digital platform called the blockchain. These contracts automatically execute when predefined conditions are met, removing the need for intermediaries and allowing for trustless transactions between parties.

Here's a step-by-step breakdown of how smart contracts work on the blockchain:

  1. Contract creation: The smart contract is written using a programming language such as Solidity (for Ethereum-based contracts) or Rust (for contracts on the Solana platform). The contract's code defines the rules and conditions for its execution, as well as any potential outcomes.
  2. Deployment: Once the smart contract is written, it is deployed on the blockchain by the contract creator. This involves paying a transaction fee (or "gas") to incentivize miners or validators to process the transaction and include it in a new block. Upon deployment, the smart contract is assigned a unique address on the blockchain.
  3. Interaction: Participants can interact with the smart contract by sending transactions to its address. These transactions typically include function calls that trigger the contract's execution, along with any required data or cryptocurrency tokens.
  4. Execution: When a transaction triggers the smart contract, the blockchain network's nodes (miners or validators) execute the contract's code to verify that the specified conditions have been met. This process ensures consensus on the contract's outcome and guarantees its trustless nature.
  5. Outcome: If the predefined conditions are met, the smart contract automatically executes the agreed-upon actions, such as transferring cryptocurrency tokens, updating records, or triggering other smart contracts. These actions are recorded as new transactions on the blockchain, providing a transparent and immutable record of the contract's outcome.
  6. Termination: Some smart contracts are designed to operate indefinitely, while others have a built-in termination clause, such as an expiration date or a specific condition that, once met, renders the contract inactive.

Smart contracts have a wide range of applications, including decentralized finance (DeFi), supply chain management, voting systems, insurance, and digital identity management. By eliminating the need for intermediaries and automating contract execution, smart contracts have the potential to increase efficiency, reduce costs, and minimize fraud across various industries.

Digital Derivatives

Derivatives are financial contracts whose value is derived from an underlying asset, such as stocks, bonds, commodities, or cryptocurrencies. These contracts can be used for various purposes, including hedging, speculation, or arbitrage. Implementing derivatives on the blockchain allows for the creation of decentralized, transparent, and secure financial instruments, leveraging the benefits of smart contracts and distributed ledger technology.

The key steps to implement derivatives on the blockchain are:

  1. Tokenization of underlying assets: The first step in creating blockchain-based derivatives is to tokenize the underlying assets. Tokenization is the process of representing real-world assets as digital tokens on the blockchain. These tokens can be traded, bought, or sold, just like their physical counterparts, while benefiting from the speed, transparency, and security of blockchain technology.
  2. Smart contract development: Once the underlying assets are tokenized, developers create smart contracts to define the rules and conditions of the derivative contracts. These may include details such as the type of derivative (e.g., options, futures, or swaps), contract size, expiration date, strike price, and settlement method.
  3. Deployment and trading: After the smart contracts have been developed and tested, they are deployed on the blockchain. This process involves paying a transaction fee (or "gas") to incentivize miners or validators to include the contract in a new block. Users can then interact with the smart contracts to create, buy, sell, or exercise the derivative contracts.
  4. Price feeds and oracles: To ensure that the derivative contracts function correctly, it's crucial to have accurate and reliable price information for the underlying assets. This is achieved through the use of price feeds and oracles, which are third-party services that provide real-time price data from multiple sources. These data points are then fed into the smart contracts, enabling them to execute when predefined conditions are met.
  5. Margin and collateral management: Many derivatives require participants to post collateral or margin to cover potential losses. Blockchain-based derivatives can leverage smart contracts to automate margin calls and collateral management, ensuring that participants maintain sufficient collateral throughout the life of the contract.
  6. Settlement and clearing: When the derivative contract reaches its expiration date or is exercised by a participant, the smart contract automatically handles the settlement process. This may involve transferring digital tokens between the parties, updating records, or calculating and distributing payouts. The use of blockchain technology can significantly reduce the complexity and cost of the settlement and clearing process.

Blockchain-based derivatives have numerous advantages over traditional derivatives, including increased transparency, lower counterparty risk, reduced settlement times, and lower costs. They are particularly well-suited for the cryptocurrency market, where decentralized finance (DeFi) platforms are already using smart contracts to create various types of derivatives, such as options, futures, and perpetual swaps, etc.